published by Rudolph Ackermann in 3 volumes, 1808–1811.
THE ASYLUM, OR HOUSE OF REFUGE
Is in the parish of Lambeth, in Surry, and was instituted in the year 1758, for the reception of friendless and deserted girls, the settlement of whose parents cannot be found. It was incorporated in the year 1800.
The annexed print is an interesting representation of the objects of this benevolent institution at their repast, in the presence of some of their guardians, who seem to contemplate the good order, cheerfulness, innocence, and comforts of their little wards, with all that interest and delight, that luxury of fine feeling, which irradiates the countenance when the heart is glowing with benevolence, animated with the exercise of an important duty, and gratified by the conviction that their virtuous endeavours are crowned with success. The coup d’ceil of the print is most impressive, and does great honour to’ the talents and feelings of the artists. The sweet innocence of the children, the benevolence of the guardians, and the chaste and matron-like simplicity of the building, aided by a fine breadth of effect, form a whole, which at the same time that the parts are in perfect harmony with each other, is admirably calculated to awaken the tender emotions of the humane heart, and excite the spectator to the exertion of those tender and kindly feelings, which do honour to our nature.
This charity owes its establishment to that vigilant and active magistrate. Sir John Fielding; who had long observed, that though the laws of this kingdom provided a parish settlement for every person, by birth, parentage, apprenticeships, &Y. yet many cases continually occurred, in which such settlements were difficult, if not impossible, to be ascertained; and therefore he and others were solicitous to remove, in part, this source of female wretchedness. By their exertions, and the continued endeavours of those who have hitherto conducted the plan, their benevolent intentions have been rewarded with the most signal success. The generous and discerning public has bestowed the means, which have prospered in the hands of the guardians, by whose care two hundred deserted females are daily sheltered and protected from vice and want, supplied with food and raiment, and taught whatever can render them useful in their situation, or comfortable and happy in themselves.
Carefully instructed in the principles of religion; in reading, writing, needlework, and household business, they are trained to habits of industry and regularity, by which means there is a supply of diligent and sober domestics for the use of that public, which, by its contributions, has so nobly acquired a right to their services.
The particular objects of this charity are, the children of soldiers, sailors, and other indigent persons, bereft of their parents, at a distance from any of their relations; who being too young to afford the necessary information respecting settlements, are often left destitute of protection and support, at an age when they are incapable of earning a subsistence, and contending with surrounding dangers.
Females of this description are, in a particular manner, the objects of compassion, and have also a double claim to the care of the humane and virtuous, from being not only exposed to the miseries of want and idleness, but, as they grow up, to the solicitations of the vicious, and the consequent misery of early seduction.
The following are some of the regulations for the government of this charity, which have been made by the guardians from time to time, and now continue in force.
Qualifications of Guardians.
The qualification of an annual guardian is, a yearly subscription of three guineas or upwards.
The qualification of a perpetual guardian is, a subscription of thirty guineas or upwards.
Legacies bequeathed to the use of this charity of one hundred pounds or upwards, when paid, shall entitle the first-named acting executor to be a perpetual guardian.
The guardians, conceiving it to be very essential for promoting one of the chief objects of this institution, earnestly solicit the ladies, who are particularly qualified for that purpose, frequently to visit the charity, inspect the management of the house, and particularly the employment of the children; also to see that they are properly instructed in housewifery, so as to be qualified for useful domestic servants; and from time to time communicate to the committee, by letter or otherwise, such observations as they shall deem proper to make.
Employment of the Children.
The children are to make and mend their own linen; make shirts, shifts, and table-linen; to do all kinds of plain needle-work, and to perform the business of the house and kitchen; to which latter twelve are appointed weekly, according to their age and abilities, to assist the cook, to wash, iron, and get up all the linen. They are likewise taught to read the Bible, write a legible hand, and understand the first four rules in arithmetic.
All kinds of plain needle-work are taken in at the Asylum, and performed
by the children at certain rates, which are regulated by the committee.
The following ore the Rules for placing out the Children.
They are to be bound apprentices for seven years, at the age of fifteen, or sooner, as domestic servants to reputable families in Great Britain.
No girl shall be apprenticed until the character of the master or mistress applying for the same, shall have been enquired into, and approved of by the committee.
Every person applying for an apprentice must appear at the committee, to give the necessary information respecting their situation, unless such appearance be dispensed with by the committee.
When any girl shall become qualified to be an apprentice, the guardian who presented her shall be acquainted therewith, in order to know if such guardian has any place in view for her.
The guardians, desirous of encouraging the children to serve their apprenticeship faithfully, have empowered the committee to grant any orphan apprenticed from the charity, who shall produce to the committee a certificate, signed by her master or mistress (or both if living), of her good behaviour during her apprenticeship, the sum of five guineas, such orphan having first returned public thanks in the chapel for the protection she has received. The committee are empowered to put out at any time, to any trade they shall think proper, such orphans as may have contracted any disease or infirmity, which may render them incapable of domestic service, with a premium not exceeding ten pounds.
The Establishment is as follows:
Patroness of the Institution.
Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain
His Royal Highness Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge.
The Marquis of Blandford.
Right Honourable Earl Spencer, K. G.
Right Honourable Earl Mansfield.
Right Honourable Admiral Lord Radstock.
Right Honourable Lord Chief Baron.
Sir William Leighton, Knight and Alderman.
A chaplain, a morning preacher, an evening preacher, two physicians, two surgeons, an apothecary, a secretary, messenger, and collector. There are also a treasurer, and a committee consisting of nineteen gentlemen, that are elected annually at the general court held every April. Concerning these for each year, and many other things relative to this praise-worthy institution, every necessary particular may be found in a small abstract account to be had at the Asylum; from which we extracted the following regulations respecting devises or bequests to the charity, as we have much besides in the preceding pages.
Well-disposed persons, who may be inclined to make devises of rent, or bequests of personal property, for the benefit of this charity, being authorised so to do by the act of Parliament whereby it is incorporated, will be pleased to make such devises and bequests to this corporation by the style and title of The President, Vice-presidents, Treasurer, and Guardians of the Asylum for the Reception of Orphan Girls, the Settlement of whose Parents cannot be found.
Bankers and Receivers .
Messrs. Hankey and Co. Fenchurch-street.
Messrs. Drummond, Charing-Cross.
Messrs. Hoares, Fleet-street.
Messrs. Croft and Co. Lombard-street.
Messrs. Vere, Lucadon, and Co. Lombard-street.
Messrs. Sikes, Snaith, and Co. Mansion-house-street.
The committee, who meet at the Asylum every Thursday, at eleven o’clock in the forenoon.
Charles Wright, Esq. treasurer, and The Rev. Mr. Agutter, at the Asylum, chaplain and secretary.
We shall close the account of this benevolent institution with the animated apostrophe of the amiable Pennant.
“It is an institution of a most heavenly nature, calculated to save from perdition of soul and body the brighter part of the creation; those on whom Providence hath bestowed angelic faces and elegant forms, designed as blessings to mankind, but too often debased. The hazards that these innocents are constantly liable to from a thousand temptations, from poverty, from death of parents, from the diabolical procuress, and sometimes from the stupendous wickedness of parents themselves, who have been known to sell their beauteous girls for the purpose of prostitution, induced a worthy hand, in the year 1758, to found the Asylum, or House of Refuge. Long may it flourish, and eternal be the reward of those into whose mind so noble a design entered!”